Some people may suffer from a condition of absence of spermatozoa during ejaculation. This is known as Azoospermia. This can be a cause of abnormal sperm production or due to any obstruction in the flow of semen during ejaculation. Blockage in the reproductive tract can be due to an infection, trauma or an iatrogenic injury that occurs during bladder neck, pelvic, abdominal or inguinoscrotal surgery.
MESA or Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration is used to treat conditions like obstructive azoospermia; it involves dissection of the epididymis under the operating microscope and incision of a single tubule. Fluid spills from the Epididymal tubule and pools in the Epididymal bed. This pooled fluid is then aspirated.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA), it does not require any surgical incision. A small needle is inserted into the head of the epididymis through the scrotal skin; the fluid is then aspirated. The embryologist recovers the sperm cells and prepares for ICSI.
TESE or testicular sperm extraction is a surgical biopsy procedure of the testis. In contrast, TESA or testicular sperm aspiration is performed by inserting a small needle in the testis and aspirating the fluid out by employing negative pressure. The aspirated tissue id further processed, and the retrieved sperm cells are then prepared for ICSI.